” NEW WORLD ” Encyclopedia

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The reason for physical education consists of more than training the body, or physical fitness, but is dependant on the understanding that fitness and physical training helps your brain. For young children play has been recognized as a valuable, even essential, element of learning. While some cultures included trained in some form of physical exercise, such as hunting, dance, martial arts, and so forth, since early times, others, particularly those emphasizing literacy, excluded physical training as part of their education for young people.

Today physical education is accepted as a necessary facet of education, even though the competitive inclusion and aspects of grading is controversial. Physical education has existed because the earliest stages of human society, in forms as easy as the transmission of basic survival skills, such as hunting. Later, the ancient Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations experienced customs of physical education and activity, most acted out in wearing contests commonly, military tactics and training, and martial arts. The ancient Greek emphasis on anatomy, physical achievement and skills was for the first time in the historic world combined with a humanistic and scientific approach to controlling one’s life.

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The first known literary mention of an athletic competition is conserved in the ancient Greek text, the Iliad, by Homer, and the ancient Greek tradition of the Olympic Games, which started in the early eighth century B.C.E. JAPAN tradition of physical activity integrated into lifestyle derived from Bushido (“the way of the warrior”).

The dad of modern physical education as we realize it today was Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. During the nineteenth century, Jahn set up the first gymnastic school for children in Germany. A fervent German nationalist, Jahn believed that the best kind of culture was one which had established requirements of physical power and capabilities.

The first Turnplatz, or open-air gymnasium, was opened up by Jahn in Berlin in 1811, and the Turnverein (gymnastics association) motion spread rapidly. Around the same time, but indie of Jahn’s developments, the Swedish instructor Pehr Henrik Ling began to see the advantages of gymnastics. In 1813 he was successful in developing the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute with the cooperation of the Swedish authorities, which proceeded to go much to improve physical fitness. Soon, many European nations followed suit, first with private schools mostly for gymnastics.

In the first twentieth century, with the introduction of organized sports, general public academic institutions round the world started to develop physical education curricula. Before physical education became popular in school systems, private gyms began to crop up in America and European countries. The first indoor gymnasium in Germany was the one built-in Hesse in 1852 by Adolph Spiess probably, an enthusiast for boys’ and girls’ gymnastics in the schools. In the United States, the Turner movement thrived in the first and nineteenth twentieth centuries.

The first Turners group was shaped in Cincinnati in 1848. The Turners built gymnasia in a number of cities, including Cincinnati and St. Louis which had large German American populations. Adults and youngsters utilized these gyms. In the Meiji period (late nineteenth century), Japan imported many foreign sports. Nationwide sports contests were instituted, in the centre school level particularly, which continue in the form of national school competitions.

However, an absolutist ideology of winning became established, especially among middle school students who have been being prepared for military services service, enhancing nationalistic ideas and helping the development of military power. Over the last years of the nineteenth century and twentieth century early, John Dewey and his colleagues promoted progressive education ideas, challenging traditional education and leading to reforms that included the launch of physical education. Educational psychologists, including Stanley G. Hall and Edward Thorndike backed Dewey’s focus on activity in learning, recommending that children’s play be recognized as an important aspect of their development. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was the first ever to seriously consider a countrywide physical fitness program in the U.S.

However, his well-intended President’s Council on Youth Fitness never fully materialized, and it was still left up to the succeeding President John F. Kennedy to present and encourage general public school systems to look at physical fitness programs in their curricula. The principal seeks of physical education differ, predicated on the needs of the time and place. Often, many different types of physical education occur simultaneously, some intentionally among others not.